The Role of the Outline in Second Language Composition: 
Pre-Writing or Prevention? 
Few language teachers would deny the recent surge in, and the 
benefits of, process- (as opposed to product-) oriented writing 
instruction. An essential ingredient in process-oriented writing 
instruction is the pre-writing activity.

This study investigates the role of the outline as a pre-writing 
activity for second language compositions. Results suggest that 
the static a priori nature of the typical outline may stand in 
opposition to the fluid essence of the composing process.